To access the properties of theoretical graphene, it is crucial to manufacture layers with a defect-free structure. The imperfections of the structure are the cause of deterioration in both electrical and mechanical properties. Among the most commonly occurring crystalline defects, there are grain boundaries and overlapping zones. Hence, perfect graphene shall be monocrystalline, which is difficult and expensive to obtain. An alternative to monocrystalline structure is a quasi-monocrystalline graphene with low angle-type boundaries without the local overlapping of neighboring flakes. The purpose of this work was to identify factors that directly affect the structure of graphene grown on a surface of a liquid metal. In the article the growth of graphene on a liquid copper is presented. Nucleating graphene flakes are able to move with three degrees of freedom creating low-angle type boundaries when they attach to one another. The structure of graphene grown with the use of this method is almost free of overlapping zones. In addition, the article presents the influence of impurities on the amount of crystallization nuclei formed, and thus the possibility to order the structure, creating a quasi-monocrystalline layer.
Source: Materials 2020, 13 (11), 2606
Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/13/11/2606