The novelty of the presented paper is the mechanism of graphene growth from the liquid phase on the Cu-Ni alloy and the type of atmosphere, which was used in the graphene fabrication – acetylene, ethylene, hydrogen. Stages of nucleation and polycrystalline growth of graphene were identified. The proposed mechanism of the studied phenomena and processes were discussed. The effects of cleaning zone were observed and confirmed. Furthermore the paper presents the results of a single- and multi-layered graphene growth phase. It is assumed as a the final result the optimalization of the industrial-scale production of low-cost polycrystalline nanocomposite based on graphene will be done, considering already mentioned applications.